Saturday, May 24, 2008

Disable OpenSolaris Network Auto-Magic (NWAM)

NWAM is now enabled by default, but it has some limitations (only one NIC is enabled, etc). Personally, I like to configure the network interfaces myself.

To disable Network Auto-Magic on SXCE (Solaris Express Community
Edition) or Indiana (OpenSolaris):

# svcadm disable svc:/network/physical:nwam

Monday, May 19, 2008

Disk Cleanup Wizzard in Windows Server 2008

If you want to run the Disk Cleanup Wizzard (cleanmgr) on Windows 2008 Server you need to install the "Desktop Experience" Role and restart your computer.

So basically, start the Server Manager (CompMgmtLauncher.exe) - Features - Add Feature - Desktop Experience and restart your machine. IT doesn't mention this also adds the Cleanup Wizzard though, heh.

It's a bit counter-intuitive, but that's how it is. This also adds themes, Media Player, photo management and a few other useless things.

Thursday, May 15, 2008

Digg down, suggests you watch some p0rn while they restart the servers

Digg was down for a couple of minutes. Check the highlighted links :-). I'm wondering if that's a bug or a feature...

Doesn't look like anything was hacked though, google indexed it and all.

Either way, some of the links aren't exactly "Safe for Work" and it seems pretty irresponsible to put them on the front page like that, heh.

Custom df (diskfree) column output in Solaris using nawk

Let's say you want to combine some features of "df -h" with "df -n" to show filesystem type and some other custom modifications to the output. This is where awk/nakw/gawk/whatever come in handy:

% df -g | nawk '{if (NR % 5 == 1) printf "%-22s", $1 ; if (NR % 5 == 4) printf "%-10s", "fstype " $1 "\n"; if (NR % 5 == 2) printf "%-30s",$1/2/1024/1024 " GB"; if (NR % 5 == 2) printf "%-30s", $4/2/1024/1024 " GB free "}'

/ 33.6627 GB 18.4351 GB free fstype ufs
/devices 0 GB 0 GB free fstype devfs
/system/contract 0 GB 0 GB free fstype ctfs
/proc 0 GB 0 GB free fstype proc
/etc/mnttab 0 GB 0 GB free fstype mntfs
/etc/svc/volatile 7.88214 GB 7.8813 GB free fstype tmpfs
/system/object 0 GB 0 GB free fstype objfs
/lib/ 33.6627 GB 18.4351 GB free fstype ufs
/dev/fd 0 GB 0 GB free fstype fd
/tmp 7.88142 GB 7.8813 GB free fstype tmpfs
/var/run 7.88134 GB 7.8813 GB free fstype tmpfs
/export/home 74.4858 GB 1.87458 GB free fstype ufs
/storage 108.639 GB 66.9259 GB free fstype nfs

You can also add a comma (,) to the separators and output > csv (you can open the comma separated values table in Excel or OpenOffice or any other Spreadsheet application) :-).

OpenBSD Web Portal server (Drupal)

Final goal: Drupal Web portal with TinyMCE JavaScript editor, Unicode and Locales support running on OpenBSD 4.3.

1. Installing and configuring OpenBSD – read the FAQ, partition.

a. You can install OpenBSD via cdrom (install43.iso or cd43.iso for netinstall) or netboot via TFTP / BOOTP / DHCPD. Read diskless(8) for details. On Windows, you can use TFTPD32 for DHCP/TFTP.

b. Partition the disk (read the FAQ on partitioning). Example partitioning scheme:


Mount location


Mount options





1 1





Whole disk





1 2





1 2





1 2





1 2

c. Disable non-critical services (like ident, time, daytime, etc.) from /etc/inetd.conf. Just comment out the lines you don’t want with a #.

d. Make sure you enable Soft Updates (softdep) mounts – they increase the Filesystem performance tenfold when it comes to writing a lot of small files. This is done by adding “softdep” to mount options in /etc/fstab.

e. Add a regular user account. You can use the useradd(8) script. Make sure you add the user to the wheel group to allow su – root.

f. For added security configure „sudo” by running visudo(8). You can permit all users in the wheel group to sudo root: %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: SETENV: ALL

i. It’s usually best to disable root logins and use “sudo” for root access (sudo –i or su – if you need a root sheel). Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config. You can also change the default ssh port from 22 to some random port to mitigate against brute force attacks. Keeps them from filling out your logs with junk. Consider using ssh keys also.

ii. Port 6969

iii. PermitRootLogin no

iv. Restart the OpenSSH daemon: „pkill –HUP sshd

g. Configure your user profile to use a ftp mirror. Add the following to your ~/.profile: (or whatever shell you’re using, eg: .bashrc, .zshrc): PKG_PATH=; export PKG_PATH

h. Restart the system (to mount softdep, etc.).

i. Install some “critical” packages:

i. pkg_add -vi mc zsh screen elinks zip unzip bzip2

j. Install ports

i. cd /usr
sudo ftp
sudo tar zxf ports.tar.gz

k. Unpack the OpenBSD source code (src and kernel – sys) – these are required for patching OpenBSD:

i. cd /usr/src
sudo ftp
sudo ftp
sudo tar zxvf src.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf sys.tar.gz

l. Apply OpenBSD security patches. You download patches from and you apply them using the instructions in the patch headers:

i. ftp
You can put 001_openssh.patch, 002_openssh2.patch and the following patches in /usr/src and apply them. Read the header for the patches for instructions.

% head -11 001_openssh.patch
Apply by doing:
cd /usr/src
patch -p0 < install ="="> lib
===> ssh
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 ssh /usr/bin/ssh
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh.0
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh_config.cat5 /usr/share/man/cat5/ssh_config.0
/usr/share/man/cat1/slogin.0 -> /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh.0
/usr/bin/slogin -> /usr/bin/ssh
===> sshd
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 sshd.cat8 /usr/share/man/cat8/sshd.0
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 sshd_config.cat5 /usr/share/man/cat5/sshd_config.0
===> ssh-add
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 ssh-add /usr/bin/ssh-add
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh-add.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh-add.0
===> ssh-keygen
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 ssh-keygen /usr/bin/ssh-keygen
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh-keygen.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh-keygen.0
===> ssh-agent
install -c -s -o root -g _sshagnt -m 2555 ssh-agent /usr/bin/ssh-agent
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh-agent.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh-agent.0
===> scp
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 scp /usr/bin/scp
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 scp.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/scp.0
===> sftp-server
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 sftp-server /usr/libexec/sftp-server
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 sftp-server.cat8 /usr/share/man/cat8/sftp-server.0
===> ssh-keysign
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 4555 ssh-keysign /usr/libexec/ssh-keysign
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh-keysign.cat8 /usr/share/man/cat8/ssh-keysign.0
===> ssh-keyscan
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 ssh-keyscan /usr/bin/ssh-keyscan
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 ssh-keyscan.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/ssh-keyscan.0
===> sftp
install -c -s -o root -g bin -m 555 sftp /usr/bin/sftp
install -c -o root -g bin -m 444 sftp.cat1 /usr/share/man/cat1/sftp.0
===> scard
install -c -m 444 -o root -g bin Ssh.bin /usr/libdata/ssh

  • 2. Restart the system to apply patches (or just the affected services by using pkill –HUP for example if you didn’t patch the kernel).
3. Installing additional OpenBSD filesets if required by say php5-gd: (if you skipped this at install). You can read the FAQ, but this is basically it:

a. % cd / && sudo ftp
% sudo tar xzvphf xbase43.tgz

% sudo ldconfig -m /usr/X11R6/lib
4. Install PHP 5 (and various libraries for image manipulation, database access and Unicode support):

a. % sudo pkg_add -vi php5-core php5-mysql php5-curl php5-mbstring php5-gd
Ambiguous: choose package for php5-gd
1: php5-gd-5.2.5
2: php5-gd-5.2.5-no_x11
Your choice: 1
parsing php5-gd-5.2.5

b. Activate PHP modules by creating the various symbolic links:

i. % sudo ln -s /var/www/conf/modules.sample/php5.conf /var/www/conf/modules

ii. % sudo ln -fs /var/www/conf/php5.sample/curl.ini /var/www/conf/php5/curl.ini

iii. % sudo ln -fs /var/www/conf/php5.sample/gd.ini /var/www/conf/php5/gd.ini

iv. % sudo ln -fs /var/www/conf/php5.sample/mbstring.ini /var/www/conf/php5/mbstring.ini

v. % sudo ln -fs /var/www/conf/php5.sample/mysql.ini /var/www/conf/php5/mysql.ini

5. Install, configure and secure the MySQL database:

a. % sudo pkg_add -vi mysql-server

b. Installing the default database

i. % sudo /usr/local/bin/mysql_install_db

c. Starting the MySQL service:

i. % sudo /usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe&
[1] 32390
% Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /var/mysql

d. Secure the installation (delete anonymous users, the test database and set a root password). PS: don’t use # in your password, there’s a bug in the script. Set that manually if you want.

i. % sudo /usr/local/bin/mysql_secure_installation

e. Tune some sysctl parameters for MySQL:

i. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf:

ii. Apply the changes
% sudo sysctl kern.shminfo.shmall=32768
kern.shminfo.shmall: 8192 -> 32768
% sudo sysctl kern.maxfiles=8192
kern.maxfiles: 3580 -> 8192

iii. Add a mysql login in /etc/login.conf:

iv. % sudo cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf

6. Configure SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) for Apache mod_ssl (https). Generate a self signed certificate (or sign one) by reading ssl(8).

a. % sudo openssl genrsa -out /etc/ssl/private/server.key 1024
% sudo openssl req -new -key /etc/ssl/private/server.key -out /etc/ssl/private/server.csr
% sudo openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/ssl/private/server.csr -signkey /etc/ssl/private/server.key -out /etc/ssl/server.crt

b. Test SSL support (lynx is ssl enabled):
% sudo apachectl startssl
% lynx https://localhost

7. Configure the Apache webserver:

a. Edit the Apache configuration file and setup PHP and server details /var/www/conf/httpd.conf
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
ServerAdmin cmihai@website
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
ServerName hostname(fqdn)

b. Configure PHP:

i. Edit the PHP config /var/www/conf/php.ini
upload_max_filesize = 12M

c. Test PHP:
ed /var/www/htdocs/index.php

Test PHP:
% lynx http://localhost/index.php

d. Configure Sendmail for supporting the Apache chroot[1]
% sudo pkg_add -vi mini_sendmail-chroot
parsing mini_sendmail-chroot-1.3.6p0
mini_sendmail-chroot-1.3.6p0: complete

% sudo mkdir -p /var/www/usr/sbin/
% sudo ln /var/www/bin/mini_sendmail /var/www/usr/sbin/sendmail
% sudo cp /bin/sh /var/www/bin

8. Configure services to start at boot (Apache and MySQL):

a. % sudo ed /etc/rc.conf

b. % sudo ed /etc/rc.local
if [ -x /usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe ] ; then
su -c mysql root -c '/usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe >/dev/null 2>&1 &'
echo -n ' mysql'
# Crearea unui link pentru socketul MySQL in chrootul Apache
mkdir -p /var/www/var/run/mysql
sleep 5
ln -f /var/run/mysql/mysql.sock /var/www/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock

c. Reboot to test changes.

9. Crate a database for Drupal and a user. Grand permissions:

a. % sudo mysql -u root -p
CREATE USER drupal IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON drupal.* to USER drupal@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

10.Install Drupal and modules:

a. % sudo pkg_add -vi drupal5-tinymce drupal5-link-to-content drupal5-imce drupal5-image drupal5-backup-migrate drupal5-autolocale drupal5-token drupal5-securelogin ImageMagick

11.Optionally configure .httauth for security:

a. % cd /var/www
% sudo htpasswd -c htpasswd username

Add .htaccess to /var/www/htdocs
AuthName "Nu este permis accesul"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile ../htpasswd
require valid-user

b. Add “Add AllowOverride All” în /var/www/conf/httpd.conf.

c. Restart Apache (apachectl stop && apachectl startssl).

You can now configure Drupal and the various modules. Be sure to setup a backup schedule. You can use the Drupal database backup and restore module.

You can also install Apache mod_security for additional security:
% sudo pkg_add -vi modsecurity-apache
% sudo /usr/local/sbin/mod_security-enable
% sudo apachectl stop && sudo apachectl startssl

Make sure you read /usr/local/share/doc/mod_security/modsecurity-manual.pdf

You should also keep an eye on your webserver. For monitoring, I recommend top(1), vmstat, (8), sysctl hw, pftop and mytop.

% sudo pkg_add -vi mytop pftop
% sudo /usr/local/sbin/pftop

To use mytop you'll need a ~/.mytop file (and set proper permissions on it). You can add something like:


% mytop

MyTOP in Action

You'll also want to setup Packet Filter. Read the PF User's Guide, pf.conf(5) and the example rulesets in /usr/share/pf/examples. Enable pf in /etc/rc.conf (pf=YES).

[1] Read chroot(2) ssl(8) afterboot(8), etc.

Sunday, May 11, 2008

Nine Inch Nails - The Slip - free music

As you know Trent Reznor went all "open source this, free download that" so you can just grab torrents with .flac or directly download the mp3 versions of his latest album:

You can even grab a 1.2GB better-than-CD-quality 24bit 96kHz audio file.

You can also grab 9 tracks off his Ghosts album and some pretty neat bundled wallpapers and extra content.

Dirty Java makes 70 people sick

At a Sun JavaOne conference in San Francisco apparently got infected with a norovirus that causes nausea, vomiting and diarrhea...

Thursday, May 01, 2008

Marian Vanghelie - Bucharest Mayor's Site hacked

Marian Vanghelie, mayor of Bucharest's personal website:

You see this sort of thing more and more these days..

And again, that's what people get for running something like Apache/2.0.51 (Fedora) PHP/4.4.7 mod_ssl/2.0.51 OpenSSL/0.9.7a and probably some ancient SQL with a badly coded website. Please, stop letting children write your website in PHP...

It also looks like it's been like this for quite some time... heh.

OpenBSD 4.3 has been released

OpenBSD 4.3 has been released.